Materials & Properties

Guides to materials Materials and applications

Refractory Metals

Tungsten

(W) Atomic number: 74

Properties
*High heat resistance, high heat conductivity, high specific gravity
Melting point (°C ) 3387
the highest among all metals
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 172  
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 4.5
the lowest among all metals
Specific gravity 19.3 equal to gold
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 4.2  
Young’s modulus (GPa) 345  
Applications
  • Filaments for illumination, crucible
  • Heater for vacuum furnance
  • All kinds of electrodes for discharge lamps, electrical contacts
  • Heat screen material, TIG welding electrodes
  • Components for semiconductor ion implantacion devices
  • Sputtering targets
  • Balance weight

Molybdenum

(Mo) Atomic number: 42

Properties
*Heat-resistant, high heat conductivity
Melting point (°C ) 2623
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 142
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 5.3
Specific gravity 10.2
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 2.6
Young’s modulus (GPa) 276
Applications
  • Illumination parts, lightbulb filament wire
  • Heaters used in high temperature furnance as well as shields
  • Crucible, sinter board
  • Parts for power devices
  • Magnetron parts used in microwave ovens
  • Sputtering targets material

Tantalum

(Ta) Atomic number: 73

Properties
*Heat-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 2990
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 57.5
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 6.3
Specific gravity 16.7
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.7
Young’s modulus (GPa) 185
Applications
  • Parts for heat exchanger
  • High temperature reactor components
  • Source components for semiconductor ion implantation devices

ion implantation devices
Powder: condenser, target materials
Oxide: optical lenses’ additive
Carbide: cemented carbide tool

Niobium

(Nb) Atomic number: 41

Properties
*Heat-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 2415
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 54
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 7.0
Specific gravity 8.6
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.8
Young’s modulus (GPa) 107
Applications
  • Iron and steel additive

Carbide: cemented carbide tool
Intermetallic compound: Superconducting magnet
Compound metal: sputtering target material

Silver

(Ag) Atomic number: 47

Properties
High heat conductivity, high electric conductivity
Melting point (°C ) 960
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 420
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 19.0
Specific gravity 10.5
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.9
Young’s modulus (GPa) 73
Applications
  • Electric lines (low electric resistance)
  • Audio cables
  • Wiring for high frequency
  • Tableware, jewels, dentist treatment
  • Water purifiers (sterilization)

Can be used as a compound metal Copper

Copper

(Cu) Atomic number: 29

Properties
*High heat conductivity, high electric conductivity
Melting point (°C ) 1084
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 398
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 16.6
Specific gravity 8.9
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.8
Young’s modulus (GPa) 130
Applications
  • Wiring materials for electric appliances
  • Electric lines (electric resistance is low and it is cheaper than silver)
  • Coins, building materials

Can be used as a compound metal brass products etc.

Aluminium

(Al) Atomic number: 13

Properties
*Light weight
Melting point (°C ) 660
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 237
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 23.2
Specific gravity 2.7
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.5
Young’s modulus (GPa) 71
Applications
  • Coins, beverage cans, pots and pans
  • Building materials, car parts
  • Petrol engines
  • Universal machine parts

Stainless steel

(SUS) steel alloy

Properties
*Corrosion-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 1450
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 16.3
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 18.0
Specific gravity 7.9
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 2.0
Young’s modulus (GPa) 200
Applications
  • Austenite type:
    • Kitchen equipment
    • Tableware
    • Corrosion resistant equipment
    • Universal machine parts
  • Martensite type:
    • Kitchen knives
    • High-durability quenching machine parts
  • Ferrite type
    • Pots used by electromagnetic cookers

Ceramics

Alumina

(Aluminium oxide) Al2O3

Properties
*High hardness, abrasion-resistant, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 2054
Thermal Shock Resistance 200
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 30
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 5.3
Specific gravity 3.9
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 18
Applications
  • Electric insulation parts
  • Furnace walls, furnace parts, jigs
  • Nozzles, spinning tube
  • Reaction crucible、reaction vessels
  • Semiconductor-related parts
  • Liquid crystal production parts
  • Electron tube parts, pumps, grinding materials
  • Crucible liners

Aluminium nitride

AIN

Properties
*High intensity, abrasion-resistant, thermal shock-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 1600
Thermal Shock Resistance 650
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 13
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 1.5
Specific gravity 3.2
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 16
Applications
  • Parts for engines
  • Gas turbine parts
  • Bearing, guide rolls
  • Cutting tools
  • Pulverizer parts
  • Gas burner parts
  • Mixing blades

Silicon nitride

Si3N4

Properties
*High intensity, abrasion-resistant, thermal shock-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 1600
Thermal Shock Resistance 650
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 13
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 1.5
Specific gravity 3.2
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 16
Applications
  • Parts for engines
  • Gas turbine parts
  • Bearing, guide rolls
  • Cutting tools
  • Pulverizer parts
  • Gas burner parts
  • Mixing blades

Silicon carbide

SiC

Properties
◇High solidity, chemical and wear resistance, high heat conductivity
Melting point (°C ) 2730
Thermal Shock Resistance 450
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 150
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 2.9
Specific gravity 3.1
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 24
Applications
  • Components used at high temperature
  • Sliding parts:
    • Bearing,
    • Mechanical seals

Zirconia

(Zirconium dioxide) ZrO2

Properties
*High fracture toughness, high strength, abrasion-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 2715
Thermal Shock Resistance 280
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 3
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 7.7
Specific gravity 6.0
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 13
Applications
  • Cutlery for industrial purposes
  • Scissors, kitchen knives
  • Gauges:
    • Pin gauge,
    • Block gauge
  • Various wear resistant parts

Boron nitride

BN

Properties
*Excellent electrical resistance at high temperature, thermal shock-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 2700
Thermal Shock Resistance 1500
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 63
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 1.4
Specific gravity 1.8
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 0.8
Applications
  • High temperature atmospheric furnace insulator
  • Various components for semiconductor processing equipment
  • Crucibles for compound semiconductor
  • Electrical part assembly jig
  • Heat sinks

Powder: high temperature lubrication additive, release agent cosmetic products

Semimetal

Silicon

(Si) Atomic number 14

Properties
*High fracture toughness, high strength, abrasion-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 1400
Thermal Shock Resistance
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 148
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 4.2
Specific gravity 2.3
Hardness (Mohs) 6.5
Applications
  • Semi-conductor parts
  • Semi-conductor manufacturing equipment parts
  • Solar battery

Glass

Quartz glass

Properties
*Excellent electrical resistance at high temperature, thermal shock-resistant
Melting point (°C ) 1700
Thermal Shock Resistance 1000
Thermal conductivity (W/(m・K)) 1.4
Thermal expansion coefficient (×10-6) 0.5
Specific gravity 2.2
Hardness (Hv)(GPa) 9
Applications
  • Optics:
    • Optical lens and prisms
    • Various laser lenses
  • Chemistry:
    • Solvent distilling container
    • Chemical experiment equipment
  • Semi conductor industrial uses:
    • CVD, all kinds of furnace tubes for diffusion purposes
    • Photomask and etc.